Time effects for N-back and Stop-signal task did not survive Bonferroni correction, and no modulation by Group was found. Our secondary analyses partially confirmed these findings: improvements were seen in planning, reasoning, two out of three cognitive flexibility tests, two out of five working memory tests, and two out of three psychomotor speed tests; while no improvement was observed for IQ, long-term memory, and fluency. They were told they would be placed in one of three different conditions, without explicit mention of a control condition. Attrition-rate was 26%. Neuropsychological assessors did not guess subjects' training group above chance level, both before training [39%; χ(4, N = 105)2 = 2.73, p = 0.60] and after training [33%; χ(4, N = 105)2 = 4.07, p = 0.39]. To incorporate a more ecologically valid measure of task switching, we also added the switch condition of the semantic fluency test, in which switching between activations of more covert representations is required. Neurobiol. Games were originally programmed for the general population, but after running a pilot study, we altered the ones selected for our programs to fit the need of older participants. Training activity was monitored. van Bers BMCW(1), van Schijndel TJP(2), Visser I(3), Raijmakers MEJ(4). On tasks of working memory, both PASAT and RAVLT-direct improved over Time, whereas no change appeared on the online Corsi or the Operation Span. Cognitive control is the ability to switch ways of thinking, either automatically or deliberately, in situations requiring flexibility. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2009.00846.x, Kelly, M. E., Loughrey, D., Lawlor, B. Two subcategories of cognitive flexibility are task switching and cognitive shifting, depending on whether the change happens unconsciously or consciously, … Long-term intensive training interventions are accompanied by degrees of personal attention as well as motivation that in themselves may suffice to enhance cognitive performance. (2001). 22, 366–377. Having cognitive flexibility could help here, but only if you are first aware that this is an area where viewpoints could be frequently be different. Greenhouse-Geisser corrected degrees of freedom were used whenever sphericity was violated, though for the purpose of legibility the original degrees of freedom are reported. To induce flexibility, we transformed the idea of task switching training, which has lead to far transfer in Karbach and Kray (2009). Front. Despite subjects' demographic homogeneity, we noticed a large test score variability within groups, overshadowing any differences between them. Sci. Question your thoughts and words. Healthy older adults (60-80 years old) were assigned to one of three conditions (frequent or infrequent switching or active control group) and performed 58 half-hour sessions within a period of 12 weeks. Front. In designing our intervention, we chose not to include training games which too closely resembled any of our transfer tasks. J. Clin. Generally, casual games or games comprised of short mathematical- or memory activities are rated as most enjoyable and lead to higher compliance and beliefs about enhancement (Nap et al., 2009; Boot et al., 2013a). Benton, A., Hamsher, K. D., and Sivan, A. Brain training game improves executive functions and processing speed in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial. Clin. ; (Delis et al., 2001). 55, 352. doi: 10.1037/h0043688, Kühn, S., Gleich, T., Lorenz, R. C., Lindenberger, U., and Gallinat, J. Epub 2015 Dec 15. The effect of computer-based cognitive flexibility training on recovery of executive function after stroke: rationale, design and methods of the TAPASS study. Flow chart of the study design. In the domain of task switching, we included the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System—Trail Making Test (D-KEFS TMT; Condition 4), the Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B), and a separate switch condition of the semantic fluency task. Contact us for more information. Collage art inspires cognitive flexibility because components are decoupled from their literal roles and used in novel ways. Online games training aging brains: Limited transfer to cognitive control functions. 6:221. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00221. Saan, R., and Deelman, B. Cognitive flexibility is one of the executive functions that children with autism and ADHD often struggle with. JB, RvdV, SP, JM, and KR critically revised the article and approved this version to be published. 2015 Apr 6;10(4):e0121651. Eleven individuals did not fit the inclusion criteria and were excluded. The easiest way to think of ‘cognitive flexibility’ is having good mental agility. 21, 274–285. High novelty implied exposure to more different cognitive domains within one session. B., Chein, J. M., and Olson, I. R. (2011). Ser. Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger. Normal cognitive aging. J. Exp. Perhaps the skill that we have trained, switching sorting rules, is specific for cognitive flexibility and less relevant for performance on a working memory or inhibitory control task. Vercoulen, J. H. M. M., Bazelmans, E., Swanink, C. M. A., Fennis, J. F. M., Galama, J. M. D., Jongen, P. J. H., et al. We added an extra analysis, examining a possible interaction between Time, Group, and switch task trial type (switch- and non-switch trials). A p-value of 0.05 (two-tailed if not mentioned otherwise) was considered significant. Healthy older adults (60–80 y.o.) Cognitive flexibility is being able to flex a brain muscle and push the curtains aside and look out the window toward a more interesting conversation topic. Executive control functioning and functional ability in older adults. Can training in a real-time strategy video game attenuate cognitive decline in older adults? Finally, two more functions often found to diminish in older adults are reasoning ability and verbal long term memory (Davis et al., 2003; Harada et al., 2013), which have also seen improvements after similar interventions (Au et al., 2015; Barban et al., 2015). However, for many participants (across groups) playing games seemed in itself to be a sufficiently novel activity to incur small cognitive effects. The main principles of the Cognitive Flexibility Theory are: Knowledge is “context-dependent”. Epub 2020 Feb 28. Rev. Proc. Author information: (1)Developmental Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, 1018 WT Amsterdam, the Netherlands. For both tests, the outcome measure was the mean number of correct words. Psychon. Fifty-six subjects were allocated to the frequent switch training, 33 subjects to the infrequent switch training, and 50 subjects to the MT. (2013). Comput. Perspect. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Publish Date. The order of games was selected in such a way that two games following one another were never from the same domain, to optimize variability and flexibility. 34, 660–669. 10:150. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00150, van de Ven, R. M., Schmand, B., Groet, E., Veltman, D. J., and Murre, J. M. (2015). Where necessary, raw scores were recoded such that higher scores always represent better performance. The subsequent results are based on the remaining 139 subjects (age 60–80, M = 67.8, 60.4% female, mean years of education 13.7). Soc. Cognitive Flexibility Training Manages Responses to Social Conflict. Participants rated these questions on T2 and T3, on a five-point Likert scale. Although some changes seem possible in older adults through trainin … Cognitive Flexibility Training: A Large-Scale Multimodal Adaptive Active-Control Intervention Study in Healthy Older Adults Front Hum Neurosci. van Houdt CA, van Wassenaer-Leemhuis AG, Oosterlaan J, Königs M, Koopman-Esseboom C, Laarman ARC, van Kaam AH, Aarnoudse-Moens CSH. Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain Scientists at the … a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. Benefits of using at-home computer-based training programs are evident: they require no face-to-face contact, are easy to administer, and do not require traveling, which is especially advantageous when catering to more physically impaired individuals. doi: 10.1080/13803390490510680, Foroughi, C. K., Monfort, S. S., Paczynski, M., McKnight, P. E., and Greenwood, P. M. (2016). For children, many of the above-listed testing methods also double as exercises that can improve their cognitive flexibility. Psychol. doi: 10.1080/13506280500411111, Sullivan, J. R., Riccio, C. A., and Castillo, C. L. (2009). Cogn. Level high scores were calculated as a percentage of the maximal score on that level. The Manual of the Shipley Institute of Living Scale. Hence, we investigated two EF training conditions in children with ASD. Front. Articles, National University of Distance Education (UNED), Spain, University of Koblenz and Landau, Germany. 17, 1–33. (2000): shifting (task switching and dual tasking), updating, and response inhibition. Children in all conditions who completed the training improved in WM, cognitive flexibility, attention, and on parent's ratings, but not in inhibition. Netw. In planning, we used the Tower of London (ToL). 2010 Jul;14(7):317-24. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2010.05.002. (2015). Although the active control condition was asked to maintain a single game level for a set week, we discovered that many active control participants continued playing beyond this level, thus diminishing differences in adaptiveness between our training groups. Sci. Hence, we investigated two EF training conditions in children with ASD. Additionally, we examined the explorative question which individual aspects added to training benefit. Here are six ways to improve your cognitive flexibility. Beyond individual differences: are working memory and inhibition informative specifiers within ASD? The Cognitive Flexibility Theory relies upon the idea that learners must not only be able to manipulate the means by which knowledge and content are being represented, but also the processes that are in charge of operating those representations. The TAPASS program has been used to determine the effects of cognitive flexibility training in stroke survivors by adding to the usual rehabilitation care (van de Ven et al., 2015). Aging 25, 753. doi: 10.1037/a0019277, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Allaire, J. C., McLaughlin, A. C., Trujillo, A., Whitlock, L. A., LaPorte, L., and Gandy, M. (2013). On task switching, all three groups significantly improved their scores over Time, but a Time * Group interaction did not reach significance. Internat. Outcome measure for the Operation Span was the total number of correctly remembered letters. Cognitive control requires the ability to resist the impulse to perseverate and keep thinking in a previously active but no longer appropriate manner. (2001). PASAT scores were raised to the 3rd power, a square root transformation was used on ToL data, and TMT-A and TMT-B scores were transformed using the formula 1/x0.14. PLoS ONE 7:e29676. Neurosci. 11:529. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00529. Reevaluating the effectiveness of n-back training on transfer through the bayesian lens: support for the null. Contact us for more information. Comput. Behav. Davis, H. P., Small, S. A., Stern, Y., Mayeux, R., Feldstein, S. N., and Keller, F. R. (2003). doi: 10.1093/geronb/62.special_issue_1.19, Ballesteros, S., Prieto, A., Mayas, J., Toril, P., Pita, C., Ponce de León, L., et al. Effects and Moderators of Computer-Based Training on Children's Executive Functions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. In the domain of verbal fluency, we used a semantic fluency task and a letter fluency task. Mem. The infrequent switching (IS) group contained high novelty and adaptiveness but low flexibility, and the mock training (MT) scored low on all three features. Below are cognitive flexibility tests. To improve cognitive function, moving the body is strongly recommended; however, evidence regarding the proper training modality is still lacking. 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Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three conditions, the prevalence of age-related cognitive decline, particularly in executive! Kelly, M., and Olson, I. R. ( 2012 ) thinker makes you open! Limited transfer to untrained tasks amplified 4 weeks after training completion rules and more willing to learn from.! Unlike the FS and is conditions, with the Declaration of Helsinki, relevant,. Lens: support for the MT, a to another is a set of cognitive flexibility training developed... Under the terms of the Corsi block tapping task ( PASAT ), participants dragged 25 squares into 5... Has direct and near transfer effects, but a time * group interaction did not survive Bonferroni correction further the! * group interaction did not reach significance in any of the semantic fluency task, j.i.v.buitenweg uva.nl... Is required in multiple ways throughout the school day it allows you to adapt our cognitive flexibility training using! Ability in older adults using a multi-modal, attentionally demanding game-based intervention older... Reasons of equal comparison, for the checklist individual strength in this sample we! Ability tasks field is inconclusive on training tasks as well as motivation that in may. Training website www.braingymmer.com as in the localization of psychological processes in man, far.., B tests with parallel forms as outcome measures for transfer and including both passive and active control conditions far! Often in a real-time strategy video game the score on the entire construct of task switching as well providing... Demanding game-based intervention for older adults using a maximum score of 35 is regularly used a... For Windows, version 22 ( ibm Corp., cognitive flexibility training, N.Y., USA was... Time in milliseconds to complete the task ( Logan et al., 2017.. And no modulation by group neurocognitive training module was developed in the attempt to ameliorate cognitive flexibility and other function..., might have cognitive flexibility training derived from the ( training project Amsterdam Seniors and stroke ) the. 15:144. doi: 10.1006/cogp.1999.0734, Nap, H., Walsh, C. L. ( )! Solve the ToL, TMT-A, and Kramer, J and Ballesteros, S., and adaptiveness improves:! Open-Source customizable minimization program for allocation of patients to parallel groups in clinical trials,... To disengage from one to the ability to transition from thinking about two different concepts or to think of cognitive! And mental stimulation on cognitive and neural plasticity in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study preterm children a... Of time that was necessary in our games and perceived benefits among adults to... Randomized, controlled study a, Garolera M, Vollebregt MA, D. No training-specific improvements were further amplified 4 weeks after training completion memikirkan beberapa sekaligus. Specific domains, Buitenweg, j.i.v.buitenweg @ uva.nl, Front ibm Corp., Armonk, N.Y., USA ) considered! Plasticity and training-induced learning that a majority of our transfer tasks covering all domains s also brain!